Wednesday, 17 April 2019 00:00

The Journey of Indonesia's Democracy

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On April 17th 2019, Indonesiahold simultaneous General Election. Indonesia had held General Election 11 times since its independence from the colonizers in 1945. The impact of revolution after the proclamation of Indonesian independence and the instability of cabinet were the reasons that the General Election in Indonesia was held 10 years after its independence namely in 1955. The first election in Indonesia was held in 1955. In the 1955 election, Indonesian people voted for members of House of Representatives (DPR). The contestants came from 29 parties. Although Indonesia did not have any experience in organizing general election before, the 1955 election was carried out successfully and conducively. The democracy festivity was transparent and open for all Indonesian people. Therefore, foreign observers perceived that the 1955 election was the most democratic election that Indonesia has ever held.The general election in Indonesia underwent several changes with the passage of time. After the rebellion of the Indonesian Communist Party in 1965 which was successfully countered, the new order was established. The next election was held again during the new order regime namely in 1971. The 1971 election was participated in by 10 parties. The 1971 election aimed to elect members of Indonesian House of Representatives (DPR), and the Regional House of Representatives for Provincial and Municipal Levels.Later, the New Order Regime cut off the number of political parties into two parties namely the United Development Party (PPP) and the Indonesian Democratic Party, plus the Functional Groups or Golkar. At the time, political parties were not allowed by the government to operate at villages. The General Election started to be held regularly every 5 years namely in 1977, 1982, 1987, 1992, and 1997.In 1998, the reformation movement successfully toppled the authoritarian new order regime. The 1999 election was held differently. As many as 48 political parties competed to become members of Indonesian House of Representative (DPR) and Regional House of Representatives (Provincial and Municipal Levels). The 2004 election applied different system. For the first time, in 2004 election, Indonesian people elected not only legislative members but also their president directly. The 2004 election applied the 3% Electoral Threshold so that the number of parties were restricted to 24 parties. Meanwhile, the 2009 election was participated in by 38 parties and local parties of Aceh. The Electoral Threshold was superseded in the 2009 election by the 2.5% Parliamentary Threshold. From 38 parties competing in the election, only 9 of them passed the parliamentary threshold and secured their seats at House of Representatives (DPR).The 2014 election was participated in by 12 parties. But, only 10 parties fulfilled the 3.5% Parliamentary Threshold and secured their seats at the Indonesian House of Representatives. Furthermore, as many as 16 national parties and 4 local Acehnese parties take part in the 2019 election. There are two presidential candidate pairs in the 2019 election. Presidential candidate pair Number 01 Joko Widodo and his running mate, Ma'ruf Amin. Meanwhile, Presidential Candidate pair Number 02 are Prabowo Subianto and, Sandiaga Uno.

Read 162 times Last modified on Thursday, 18 April 2019 07:33