Indonesia is one of the major emitters of greenhouse gases. This phenomenon is caused by high rates of deforestation and increased industry utilizing fossil fuels. The contribution of the energy sector to greenhouse gas emissions in Indonesia is at second rank in land use, land use change, and forestry. The lack of forest protection incentives, sustainable management of forests, renewable energy and energy efficiency measures increases Indonesia's contribution to accelerating global greenhouse gas emissions.
On April 22, 2016 at United Nations Headquarters in New York, USA, Minister of Environment and Forestry, Siti Nurbaya, as Indonesia's representative, signed the Paris Treaty on Climate Change. Indonesia becomes one of the first countries to directly deposit instruments of ratification. The Paris Agreement is a global one to deal with climate change. The commitments of states are expressed through Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) for the period 2020-2030, plus pre-2020 action. Under the agreement, Indonesia chose to reduce its 29% emissions by 2030 independently and 41% with international assistance. The Paris treaty will apply if ratified by at least 55 countries contributing at least 55% of greenhouse gas emissions.
According to the Ministry of Environment and Forests, forestry and land use are the most significant sectors in climate change control, as forest areas that account for 65% of the country's territory are also a place rich in biodiversity.
On May 17, 2018, in the framework of efforts to reduce emissions and improve forest governance, WWF-Indonesia signed a Memorandum of Understanding with the Province of East Kalimantan to support government efforts in a bid to reduce carbon emissions as per commitment of Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) emissions by 29% by self-effort by 2030. Through the World Bank-managed Carbon Partnership Facilities-Carbon Fund program, East Kalimantan Province has the opportunity to reduce emissions from deforestation and performance-based forest degradation.
On July 17, 2018 in Jakarta, Director of Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Monitoring of Reporting and Verification at the Ministry of Environment and Forestry -KLKH, Joko Prihatno said that based on the data, the total emission reduction is only funded and done by the government. In fact, the private sector has also been required to do mitigation action to reduce emissions. So far, many private sectors have taken action on climate change mitigation, generally done in corporate social responsibility (CSR) program. Joko hopes, starting this year, complete data have to be entered from various sectors for reporting and sooner submitted to the president and immediately brought to the climate change conference.
Until 2016, Indonesia has achieved emission reduction of 8.7%. The figure is derived from declines in the forestry, agriculture, energy, waste management sectors, and industrial production sectors. Forestry contributed the largest emission reductions, reaching 4.7% of total decline.
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is not just the homework of Indonesia. However, with the commitment of Indonesia in the Paris Agreement to do so as much as 29% until 2030, the cooperation of various related stakeholders, both government and private sectors, is necessary. Data collection also needs to be done for national and international interests. It is expected that at the agreed time, Indonesia can fulfill its commitment.