Although there is no clear timeline, Indonesia has set a number of scenarios to achieve a low-carbon development or net zero emission. Thereby, there is a need for synergy or connectivity between sectors. Director of Environment at the Ministry of National Planning and Development / National Planning and Development Agency, Medrilzam said that low-carbon development has been included in the 2020-2024 National Medium-Term Development Plan and has become one of the priority programs. This was revealed in a webinar entitled "Indonesia's Opportunity to Achieve Carbon Neutrality Before 2070" on Wednesday (28/4).
Based on a study conducted by the National Planning and Development Agency, the calculation of the zero-emission scenario must refer to a number of principles. For instance, zero emission policies must be in line with the targets in Indonesia's 2045 vision, while still pursuing emission reductions by 29 percent in 2030. In addition, the approach taken must be comprehensive across sectors.
Estimates of greenhouse gases in the land and energy sectors for zero-emission policies from 2045 to 2070 have also been calculated. This requires an additional area of 300-350,000 hectares per year and an increase in the reforestation of 250 hectares from the existing policy. Meanwhile, in the energy sector, this is carried out through the use of new renewable energy accompanied by an increase in energy efficiency to reach 6-6.5 percent in 2050. In addition, efforts to reduce waste are also being carried out starting from the circular economy through the efficiency of natural resources to reducing the production of liquid waste. On the fiscal aspect, the elimination of fuel subsidies and application of a carbon tax are needed.
So far, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the energy sector has been on target and will be increased to achieve the national contribution target of reducing emissions by 29 percent by 2030. The main contribution of mitigation actions is the new renewable energy program and energy efficiency. However, efforts to increase it are still constrained by investment costs which tend to be expensive and lack of mastery of technology.
Whatever the reasons are, Indonesia must continue to pursue the target as set out in the Climate Change Conference of the Parties, known as the Paris Agreement in December 2015. If this is not achieved, it will certainly have a negative impact on Indonesia, such as increasing temperatures, changes in rainfall, and rising sea levels. Indonesia will also be hit by extreme waves that increase by more than 1.5 meters.
To realize the scenario created by the government, each individual can contribute by reducing the use of fossil energy, reducing land and garbage burning, and replanting trees. If this is done, it is possible that Indonesia will be able to realize the national contribution to reducing emissions by 29 percent even before 2030.