Ratu Boko temple is an ancient site which is a complex of a number of remnants of buildings. It is located approximately 3 kilometers south of the Prambanan Temple complex, 18 kilometers east of Yogyakarta City or 50 kilometers southwest of Surakarta City, Central Java, Indonesia. The Ratu Boko site is located on a hill at an altitude of 196 meters above sea level. The total area of the complex is around 25 hectares. This site displays attributes as places for activities or settlement sites, but its exact function is not yet clearly known. The temple is predicted to have been used by people in the 8th century during the Sailendra Dynasty (Rakai Panangkaran) of the Medang Kingdom (Hindu Mataram). The name "Ratu Boko" comes from the legend of the local resident. Ratu Boko is a Javanese language that literally means the king of storks. The king is also the father of Loro Jonggrang and becomes the name of the main temple in the Prambanan temple complex. This building complex is associated with local folk legend, Loro Jonggrang.
Different from other ancient relics at the ancient Javanese era that are generally in the form of religious buildings, the Ratu Boko site is a residential complex, complete with gate, pavilion, residences, and bathing pool to protective fences. The Ratu Boko site is located on a high hill. This location indicates the presence of springs and the existence of a water management system that can meet daily needs. Bathing pool is a heritage of the system. Another peculiarity of the site is a place at the left of the gate which is now called “cremation place”. Viewing its size and position, it is a place to perform something or activities.
The Ratu Boko site was reported for the first time by Van Boeckholzt in 1790, stating that there are archeological ruins on the hill of Ratu Boko. A hundred year later, research was conducted and led by FDK Bosch. From this, it was concluded that the ruins were the remains of the palace. Today, the central government includes the Ratu Boko Site complex in a special authority along with the management of Borobudur and Prambanan Temples in a state-owned company called PT. Taman Wisata Candi. As a consequence, the Ratu Boko Site was reorganized in several places to be used as a place for education and cultural activities.